hazrat umar empire

The Second Khalifa Hazrat Umar ibn al-Khattab (R.A)

Hazrat Umar ibn al-Khattab (R.A) is widely regarded as a symbolic figure in the of Islamic history, his stupendous foresight, steadfast devotion, and significant contributions to the Islamic community. This article provides a comprehensive analysis of Hazrat Umar’s (R.A) life and legacy, illuminating his extraordinary influence on Islam and humanity.

A Biography Hazrat Umar ibn al-Khattab (R.A)

Hazrat Umar (R.A.), who was born in Mecca in 584 CE, belonged to the prominent Adi clan of the Quraish people. At the outset, he ardently opposed the teachings of Islam; however, upon perusing the Quran, his stance underwent a profound and abrupt change. Significantly influenced by his transformation, he emerged as one of the Prophet Muhammad’s (peace be upon him) most intimate allies.

Hazrat Umar R.A Before Islam:

Hazrat Umar R.A. was one of the most influential and respected companions of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). He accepted Islam in a remarkable way, after being a fierce opponent of the new faith. Here is a brief summary of his story:

  • Before Islam, Umar R.A. was a noble, wealthy and powerful man of Quraish, the tribe of Makkah. He was also a skilled fighter, trader and poet. He was very loyal to his ancestral religion and customs, and hated Islam and the Muslims. He often persecuted and tortured the early converts to Islam.
  • One day, he decided to kill the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and end the Islamic message once and for all. He took his sword and headed towards the Prophet’s house. On his way, he met a man who told him that his sister Fatima and her husband Sa’id had embraced Islam. Umar R.A. was enraged and changed his direction to confront them.
  • When he reached their house, he heard them reciting the Quran from a parchment. He barged in and attacked his brother-in-law. His sister intervened and he slapped her, causing her to bleed. He then saw the parchment and asked to read it, out of curiosity. His sister asked him to purify himself first, as the Quran was a sacred book. He agreed and washed himself, then read the verses of Surah Ta Ha (Chapter 20 of the Quran).
  • The words of the Quran touched his heart and he felt a surge of faith and tranquility. He realized that Islam was the true religion and that Muhammad (peace be upon him) was the Messenger of God. He asked his sister where he could find the Prophet and she told him that he was at the house of Arqam, near the hill of Safa.
  • Umar R.A. took the parchment and went to the house of Arqam. He knocked on the door and asked for permission to enter. The companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) recognized him and were afraid of his intentions. They hesitated to let him in, but the Prophet (peace be upon him) told them to open the door and trust in God. He welcomed Umar R.A. and asked him what he wanted. Umar R.A. said, “O Messenger of God, I have come to you to bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that you are the Messenger of Allah.” The Prophet (peace be upon him) and his companions rejoiced and praised God. Umar R.A. became a Muslim in the year 616 CE, when he was 27 years old.
  • Umar R.A. was a great asset for Islam and the Muslims. He was brave, generous, wise and just. He openly declared his faith and challenged the idolaters of Quraish. He participated in many battles and campaigns with the Prophet (peace be upon him) and defended the Islamic state. He was the second caliph of Islam after Abu Bakr R.A. and ruled for 10 years. He expanded the Muslim territories and established justice and welfare for the people. He was martyred by a Persian slave in 644 CE, and buried next to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and Abu Bakr R.A.

Administration under the Second Caliph:

Hazrat Umar ibn al-Khattab (R.A) inauguration as the second Caliph of Islam subsequent to the demise of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was a pivotal moment in his life. During his tenure, he demonstrated a steadfast dedication to justice, profound insight, and an unwavering sense of accountability towards the Muslim community. The Islamic empire expanded swiftly under his leadership, capturing immense territories such as Persia, Byzantine lands, and portions of the Roman Empire.

An Advocate for Welfare and Justice:

Hazrat Umar ibn al-Khattab (R.A) is commemorated for his unwavering commitment to social justice, modesty, and simplicity. His administrative and welfare reforms were revolutionary in nature and were implemented with the intention of safeguarding the welfare of every citizen, irrespective of socioeconomic status. His lasting impact is exemplified through the creation of public libraries, a structured financial system, and the humanitarian organization “Bait al-Mal,” which offered vital assistance to the poor and marginalized.

The Consultative Governance Approach:

Leadership in the form of consultation was one of the most notable characteristics of Hazrat Umar (R.A). By actively soliciting the advice of scholars and companions, he emphasized the significance of deliberative processes within the domain of Islamic governance. This methodology not only fostered inclusiveness but also established a model for subsequent leaders to partake in reflective contemplation.

The safeguarding of Islamic wisdom:

Hazrat Umar ibn al-Khattab (R.A) heavily contributed to the preservation of Islamic knowledge. His major contribution to the uniformity of the Quran’s text compilation ensured its preservation for future generations. Moreover, his impact on Islamic jurisprudence was great impact  to build the framework and justice was surely applied.


In summary, throughout the chronicles of Islamic history, Hazrat Umar ibn al-Khattab (R.A.) continues to serve as an enduring emblem of heroic leadership, unwavering devotion, and unwavering faith. His pioneering consultative approach to governance, steadfast dedication to social welfare, and indelible influence on the growth and development of Islam establish him as an enduring role model for Muslims across the globe. Hazrat Umar (R.A.) remains an icon of principled and ethical leadership who has profoundly influenced the moral fabric of societies across the globe and throughout history.

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